Heart attack - Outlook

Time is of the essence when treating someone who has had a heart attackThe death of a section of heart muscle caused by an interruption in its blood supply. Also called a myocardial infarction.. Medical assistance should be called for as soon as possible, and everyone should be aware of the possible symptoms.[1]

People who are cared for by cardiologists may have better outcomes than those cared for by general doctors.

Factors affecting prognosis

A number of elements can influence a person's outlook following a heart attackThe death of a section of heart muscle caused by an interruption in its blood supply. Also called a myocardial infarction..

The prognosis for people who have had a heart attackThe death of a section of heart muscle caused by an interruption in its blood supply. Also called a myocardial infarction. tends to be poorer in countries with a lower gross national income. This may not be down to a difference in care; it may be because of differences in risk-factor profiles, such as differences in diet [2]

People who have a heart attackThe death of a section of heart muscle caused by an interruption in its blood supply. Also called a myocardial infarction. often have high glucoseA simple sugar that is an important source of energy in the body. levels in their bloodA fluid that transports oxygen and other substances through the body, made up of blood cells suspended in a liquid. whether or not they have diabetes. This also adversely affects their prognosis, possibly because changes in bloodA fluid that transports oxygen and other substances through the body, made up of blood cells suspended in a liquid. glucoseA simple sugar that is an important source of energy in the body. levels may be associated with an increased tendency of the bloodA fluid that transports oxygen and other substances through the body, made up of blood cells suspended in a liquid. to clot. The benefits of lowering bloodA fluid that transports oxygen and other substances through the body, made up of blood cells suspended in a liquid. glucoseA simple sugar that is an important source of energy in the body. levels with insulinA hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas that acts to lower blood glucose levels. in these people are not clear, although insulinA hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas that acts to lower blood glucose levels. is usually given nonetheless.[3,4]

People who are cared for by cardiologists may have better outcomes than those cared for by general doctors.[5]

Being depressed or lacking in social support may worsen a person's prognosis, although the reasons for this are not properly understood.[6]

Other factors that are associated with a poorer outlook include:

  • Being female
  • Heart failure
  • Abnormal heart rhythms
  • Abnormal function of the mitral valveA valve in the heart located between the left atrium (one of the two upper chambers of the heart) and the left ventricle (one of the two lower chambers). in the heart (mitral regurgitation)
  • High lipidOne of a group of compounds that are an important energy source. levels.[6,7]

A key issue influencing how well a person fares after a heart attackThe death of a section of heart muscle caused by an interruption in its blood supply. Also called a myocardial infarction. is the existence of any complications.

Complications

Having a heart attackThe death of a section of heart muscle caused by an interruption in its blood supply. Also called a myocardial infarction. can adversely affect many aspects of the functioning of the heart. This includes the heart rate and rhythm, the structure of the heart, and the ability of the heart to pump bloodA fluid that transports oxygen and other substances through the body, made up of blood cells suspended in a liquid. successfully around the body.

Learn more about complications of a heart attackThe death of a section of heart muscle caused by an interruption in its blood supply. Also called a myocardial infarction..

References: 
  1. Boon NA, Colledge NR and Walker BR. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. 2006; 20th edition.
  2. Outcomes of patients in clinical trials with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctionDeath of an area of heart muscle due to poor blood supply. among countries with different gross national incomes. Orlandini A, Díaz R, Wojdyla D et al. European Heart Journa. 2006;27:527-33.
  3. Blood glucoseA simple sugar that is an important source of energy in the body. and its prognostic implications in patients hospitalised with acuteHas a sudden onset. myocardial infarctionDeath of an area of heart muscle due to poor blood supply.. Kosiborod M. Diabetes Vasc Dis Res 2008;5:269-75.
  4. Acute hyperglycaemiaA high level of glucose in the blood.: a 'new' risk factor during myocardial infarctionDeath of an area of heart muscle due to poor blood supply.. Ceriello A. European Heart Journal 2005;26:328-31.
  5. A systematic review of studies comparing myocardial infarctionDeath of an area of heart muscle due to poor blood supply. mortality for generalists and specialists: lessons for research and health policy. Hartz A and James PA. J Am Board Fam Med 2006;19:291-302.
  6. Independent importance of psychosocialRelating to psychological and social factors. factors for prognosis after myocardial infarctionDeath of an area of heart muscle due to poor blood supply.. Welin C, Lappas G and Wilhelmsen L. Journal of Internal Medicine 2000;247:629-39.
  7. Clinical profile and outcome of first acuteHas a sudden onset. myocardial infarctionDeath of an area of heart muscle due to poor blood supply. with ischemic mitral regurgitation. Chung SY, Lin FC, Chua S et al. Chang Gung Med J 2008;31:268-75.